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新托福:深度解答18问(二)

2012-03-07 16:12 来源: 网络部 作者:网络 浏览
核心提示: 济南环球雅思学校 名师为您的托福考试支招。 Integrated Task Q: 阅读文章和听力文章中共有几种可能的关系? A: There are three kinds of connections between the reading passage and the listening passage. a. The listening passage that challenges th
        济南环球雅思学校名师为您的托福考试支招。
Integrated Task
  Q: 阅读文章和听力文章中共有几种可能的关系?
  A: There are three kinds of connections between the reading passage and the listening passage.
  a. The listening passage that challenges the points made in the reading.
  b. The listening passage that presents the reasons/ways the problem described in the reading passage is solvable or really not a problem at all.
  c. The listening passage that supports the points made in the reading.
  [OG, P252] [Workshop Manual, P41]
  目前考的都是Contrast题目(只有一次考到了Solution,但也和Contrast差不多),预计在不久的将来也不会有太大变化。根据ETS高级专员(Assessment Specialist II)Susan Hines [Dec, 2006]的说法,目前题库中还没有出过关于support的题目("Comparison is not available now."),所以建议大家主要针对contrast题目进行训练,偶尔也可以用朗文的光盘训练一下solution的写法。
  Q: 阅读文章和听力文章之间一般会有几点相关联?
  A: "Typically the main idea will be developed with three points." [OG, P252]
  Q: 文章中可不可以出现自己对所谈问题的看法?
  A: "Remember that you are NOT being asked for your opinion. You ARE being asked to explain how the points in the listening relate to points in the reading." [OG, P253]
  Q: 写作的时候可不可以照搬阅读和听力中的原话?
  A: 总的来讲,照搬原文是不可以的。关键词可以不变,但是整体内容必须被paraphrase出来,特别是阅读材料里面的内容。
  "In English-speaking countries, you must follow the rules for citing when you use the same words of the original speaker or author. If you do not do this, it is considered a form of intellectual stealing, called plagiarism. While this may be accepted in some cultures, it is not acceptable in most English-speaking academic settings. Therefore, paraphrasing skills are important to learn." [TOEFL iBT Tips, P29]
  "Restatement and paraphrasing is, of course, needed." [Susan Hines, Dec., 2006]
  Q: 5分和4分的区别在哪里?
  A: "A response that scores at level 4 has many of the characteristics of a 5, but it does not reflect the content of the listening passage as accurately." [Workshop Manual, P45]
  Q: 高分(5分、4分)和3分的区别在哪里?
  A: "The response may omit one major key point made in the lecture." [Workbook, P7]
  "Response generally cannot receive a score higher than 3 if they do not address all three points and usually need to address two of the points of contrast." [Workbook, P11]
  "Responses that earn a score of 3 respond to the prompt, but they are vaguer than either 4 or 5 responses. Some details might be incorrect or altogether missing and inaccuracies increase. This combination may cause the reader to be slightly confused." [Workshop Manual, P46]
  All Writing Tasks
  Q: 高分(5分和4分)和低分(1~3分)在评分程序上有什么区别?
  A: 总的来讲,高分(4和5分)的文章要符合评分标准上的所有要求才能评为高分,但是低分文章(1到3分)只要符合评分标准的某一条就可以评为低分。
  "In general, responses should be scored at the highest levels (4 or 5) if all the score descriptors fit the response. In contrast, a response should be scored at one of the lower levels (3, 2, or 1) if some or any of the score descriptors noticeably fit the response." [OG, P267]
  Q: 拼写错误和语言问题要不要紧?
  A: 关于这一点,我们要一分为二来看。一方面,我们没必要吹毛求疵;阅卷人知道这是first draft并且是under timed condition,只要看得懂,不构成理解障碍,就没太大问题(minor flaw)。另一方面,语法和拼写还是重要的,一旦这些小错误导致阅卷人觉得难以理解,就会构成重大问题(major flaw)。
  把"dependence"写成"dependency"没太大问题;偶尔把"becomes independent"写成了"becomes independency"是个可以看到的错误,但还是问题不大;偶尔写出"They prefer to be depended on their parents."这样的奇怪句子也会得到阅卷人的宽恕。
  "Occasional language errors will not count against you as long as they do not cause you to misrepresent the meaning of points from the reading and the lecture." [OG, P253]
  "If your essay includes a few minor lexical and grammar errors, you can still get a high score. However, if you make a lot of grammar errors and if those errors make it hard to understand your meaning, you will get a lower score." [OG, P260]
  Q: 字数是不是很重要?
  A: 首先,字数没有上限。
  其次,目前字数会比以前更有意义,因为考试有计数器专门动态显示字数,为的是让考生对自己的字数做到心里有数。而且两篇文章都有了推荐字数。所以,我的建议是超过这个建议字数,虽然不用超过太多。(Integrated Task超过150,Independent Task超过300)
  最后,关键是内容,而不是数量。不要为了求字数而导致文章很啰嗦。
  "Suggested length is between 150 to 225 words. You will not be penalized if you write more, so long as what you write answers the question." [OG, P253]
  "An effective response is typically about 300 words long. If you write fewer than 300 words, you may still receive a top score, but experience has shown that shorter responses typically do not demonstrate the development of ideas needed to earn a score of 5. There is no maximun word limit. You may write as much as you wish in the time alloted." [OG, P258]
  "The length is not considered."
  以上济南环球雅思学校名师对于新托福写作的一些见解,试图为考生们揭开新托福写作许多关键问题的答案。希望对大家有所帮助。

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